As a natural extract from turmeric, curcumin has extensive pharmacological effects, such as anti-tumor, anti-inflammation, anti-oxidative stress, anti-microbial, immunoregulation and so on. In recent years, an increasing number of basic and clinical researches have shown that curcumin takes therapeutic effects on various diseases, such as gastrointestinal diseases, cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune diseases, neuropsychiatric diseases and so on. Many of the pharmacological effects and mechanisms of curcumin are associated with protective effects of intestinal mucosal barrier. It can protect intestinal mucosal barrier through mutiple pathways, including anti-inflammation, anti-oxidative stress, anti-bacterial, anti-apoptosis, regulating intestinal microecology and intestinal immune response and so on. This paper summarizes the protective effects of curcumin on intestinal barrier function and the mechanism, in order to provide new ideas for diagnosis and treatment of intestinal dysfunction.