Dysbiosis and oxidative stress in the gut have contributed to the progression of intestinal inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The current study has reported that enteric bacteria mediate redox homeostasis through the regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Resveratrol, one of the most abundant polyphenols, with poor oral bioavailability, is considered as a scavenger of ROS and other free radicals. Recent studies have shown that resveratrol effectively enhances the growth of Lactococcus lactis and inhibits the growth of Enterococcus faecalis. (1) In terms of the two-way relationship between gut microbiota and resveratrol, resveratrol modulates gut microbiota; (2) in terms of resveratrol biotransformation by gut microbiota, we speculate that gut microbiota could be a target of resveratrol to maintain gut homeostasis. Here, we reviewed the current researches about the cellular signaling pathways in intestinal epithelial cells triggered by gut microbiota in response to oxidative stress. These results suggest that the modulation of the gut microbiota through resveratrol supplementation appears as a promising potential approach for the therapy of inflammatory bowel disease.